Accounts of the birth, crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus Christ (c. 5 BC-AD 33), described in biblical prophesy (written between 1450-430 BC), the synoptic gospels (Luke, Matthew and Mark, written between AD 50-90), the Gospel of John (written c. post AD-90), Epistles of Paul of Tarsus (AD 5-67) (written between AD 50-60), and the Dead Sea Scrolls (written c. 335-100 BC), to name a few, have been the subject of historical and scientific intrigue for centuries. Since the so-called “Age of Enlightenment” (18th century) when skeptics began to question if Jesus had in fact even existed, historicity (based on archaeology and history) and science (based on biology, chemistry, and physics) have become more essential than ever to substantiate textual sources (e.g. sacred scripts, Gnostic writings). Consequently, four key areas must be explored: The “Historical” Jesus, the virgin birth, the crucifixion, and the resurrection.
The “Historical” Jesus:
Proving that Jesus had in fact existed is likely the easiest part because of the existence of accounts from diverse historical sources (e.g. Roman, Greek, and Jewish). Per Discovery Channel’s David Balsiger (Senior Producer of the “Fabric of Time” documentary) “more than 20 non-Christian sources” referred to “Jesus of Nazareth as a historical figure” between AD 30-130, “twelve mention(ed) His death provid(ing) details (and) ten refer(red) to His resurrection.”
A sample of these historical, non-Christian sources, is listed below:
1. Talmud (c. AD 70-200): Sanhedrin 43a: “On the eve of Passover they hanged [crucified] Yeshu [Jesus].” – Jewish Source
2. Mara Bar-Serapion: Mentioned the “execution of Jesus [who was called a ‘King’]” when discussing the destruction of the Temple in AD 70. – Syrian Source
3. Cornelius Tacitus (c. AD 56-117), Historian: Annals, xv. 44: “Christus… was executed at the hands of the procurator Pontius Pilate.” – Roman Source
4. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (c. AD 69-140), Chief Secretary to Emperor Hadrian: The Lives of the Caesars (Claudius 5.25.4): “…the Jews constantly made disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus, he (Claudius) expelled them from Rome [in AD 49]. – Roman Source
5. Thallus: Third Book of History: Made mention of Jesus’ death in approximately AD 52 when discussing “the darkness over the land [and earthquake] after His death” referenced to by Sextus Julius Africanus in c. AD 221. – Samaritan Source
6. Flavius Josephus (c. AD 37-97), Court Historian for Emperor Vespasian: Antiquities of the Jews: Described Jesus’ crucifixion under Pontius Pilate in about AD 93/94. – Jewish Source
7. Pliny the Younger, Governor of Bithynia in Asia Minor (c. AD 61-112): Wrote a letter to Emperor Trajan in AD 112 for instructions how to deal with Christians, who… worshipped Christus. – Roman Source
8. Lucian of Samosata (c. AD 120-180), Writer and Rhetorician: The Death of Peregrine, 1113: “The Christians… worship a man to this day the distinguished parsonage who introduced their novel rites, and was crucified on that account…” – Greek Source
Consequently, E.P. Sanders, in The Historical Figure of Jesus (Penguin, 1996) when using Alexander The Great (356-323 BC) as a paradigm concluded, “The sources for Jesus are better… than those that deal with Alexander” and “the superiority of evidence for Jesus is seen when we ask what He thought” such that “the quest for the Historical Jesus” can be better achieved than a “search for historical detail on Alexander.”
The Virgin Birth:
“Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a Son, and shall call His name Immanuel” [Isaiah 7:14]
Although it appears highly improbable that a human virgin could bear a child, it is not scientifically impossible. Per Rich Deem, Is the Virgin Birth Scientifically Impossible? (15 December 2005), “it could be possible in humans for a [virgin] woman to give birth to a male… if the woman had both an X and Y chromosome, which occurs in 1 in 5 million women.” Such a male would likely be an XX male since the child’s DNA would come solely from his mother. Presently, 1 in 20,000 males are considered XX even though they had been conceived through male-female sexual intercourse.
When mathematics is utilized to determine the odds of a virgin female with a Y chromosome conceiving an XX male divided by (1 less the percentage of stillbirths), the probability of such a virgin birth is a minuscule but not impossible – 1 in 100.6711747 trillion. Consequently, if such a virgin birth occurred, which is not scientifically impossible and in fact plausible when considering the laws of physics discussed later in this article, it likely will remain unique in human history based on probability.
Based on DNA analysis performed on the only known historical artifacts specifically tied to Jesus – the Shroud of Turin (the cloth in which Jesus’ body was wrapped when He was interred in the tomb) and the Oviedo Cloth (the napkin that covered Jesus’ face when He was in the tomb) – His genetic composition was consistent with that of an XX male lending greater credence to His possible virgin origin.
Furthermore, when virgin birth or parthenogenesis (which per ‘Virgin Birth’ By Shark Confirmed: Second Case Ever (Science Daily, 11 October 2008) occurs when “the mother’s chromosomes split during egg development [and] pair with another copy of itself [instead of with chromosomes from sperm]”) is viewed in the context of nature, it is even more likely. To date, scientists have proven that parthenogenesis has occurred in some bony fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and single hammerhead and blacktip (female) shark species.
“Where is He who has been born King of the Jews? For we have seen His star in the East and have come to worship Him?” [Matthew 2:2]
Per F.J. Tipler, The Star of Bethlehem: a Type Ia/Ic Supernova in the Andromeda Galaxy (20 March, 2005) the star the magi saw was historically and scientifically real. It could have been Supernova (SN) 1885A in the Andromeda Galaxy whose center, based on calculations from the Babylon Observatory, was extremely close to Bethlehem, such that its “galactic halo” would have been visible in the town’s center or a comet “that was observed for over seventy days with no movement recorded” by Chinese and Korean astronomers per Colin Humphreys, The Star of Bethlehem (Science and Christian Belief, October 1995), both of which could be seen in and around Bethlehem in 5 BC.
Based on contemporary descriptions, historicity and science that indicate Jesus was born on a cold night when “shepherds [were] living out in the fields, keeping watch over their flock by night” [Luke 2:8], “sheep [in the area] were usually put out to grass between March and November,” climactic data indicating that Bethlehem is usually “cold and very wet [from] December [though] February” and “the earliest date [the comet appeared based on] Chinese records” per Colin Humphreys, the birth date of Jesus can be calculated as March 9, 5 BC to further substantiate His historical existence.
Archeological evidence in conjunction with astronomical calculations (that included a lunar eclipse) from non-Biblical sources based on textual accounts, in which the area was “plunged into prolonged darkness followed by an earthquake during the crucifixion,” per Colin J. Humphreys and W.G. Waddington, Dating the Crucifixion (Nature, 22 December 1983) place the crucifixion date as April 1, AD 33 (based on the Gregorian calendar).
“Now it was about the sixth hour, and there was darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour. Then the sun was darkened and the veil of the temple was torn in two” Luke wrote of the events [23:44-45] that fulfilled a prophesy made by Amos in c. 750 BC:
“Shall not the land tremble on this account and everyone mourn who lives in it, and all of it rise like the Nile, and be tossed about and sink again, like the Nile of Egypt? On that day, says the Lord God, I will make the sun go down at noon and darken the earth in broad daylight.” [Amos 8:8-9]
Based on “a 2000 year paleoseismic record recovered from the lacustrine sedimentary section of the Dead Sea” a magnitude > 5.5 earthquake” occurred (likely across the Jericho fault line) in the Jerusalem/Dead Sea area in AD 33 that according to limited reports from the Judea region, caused damage to the Temple in Jerusalem as reported by Revital Ken-Tor, Amotz Agnon, Yehouda Enzel, Mordechai Stein, Shmuel Marco and Jorg F.W. Negendank, High-resolution geological record of historic earthquakes in the Dead Sea basin (American Geophysical Union, 2001).
At the same time, several historians, Thallus and Phlegon of Tralles, to name two, reported the occurrence of an eclipse “during the 18th year of the reign of Tiberius (42 BC-AD 37)” and “fourth year of the 202nd Olympiad” both of which corresponded to a period dating from the summer of AD 32 to spring of AD 33, in which “the day (turned) into such darkness of night that the stars could be seen in heaven, and the earth moved in Bithynia, toppling many buildings in the city of Nicea” per Crucifixion darkness and eclipse (Wikipedia. 14 May 2010).
Based on reconstruction of the Hebrew calendar, a lunar eclipse (consistent with Peter’s account: “The sun shall be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood…” [Acts 2:20]) occurred on April 1, AD 33 that per Colin J. Humphreys et al “was visible from Jerusalem at moonrise [at about 6:20 PM] with about 20% of the disc in the umbra of the earth’s shadow and remainder in the penumbra. The eclipse finished… at 6:50 PM.”
However, since the occurrence of such a lunar eclipse may not be able to fully explain the complete darkness, the approach of a severe storm (based on the darkness an approaching thunderstorm cast over Beijing, China at 11:30 AM on June 16, 2009) provides another probable cause especially since Verse 17, Lection 82 of the Gospel of the Holy Twelve (believed to have written by John in AD 70) states, “And behold there was great thunder and lightning, and the partition wall of the Holy place, from which hung the veil, fell down… and the earth did quake…”
From a medical standpoint, it is statistically improbable and historically impossible that Jesus survived the scourging and crucifixion based on corroborating sources and Roman execution methodology, in which no fewer than four executioners participated under threat of death if they failed, and a body was only released for burial after confirmation of death through piercing of the side with a spear (especially if the legs were not broken as was the case with regard to Jesus).
“And being in anguish, He prayed more earnestly, and His sweat was like drops of blood…” [Luke 22:44]. Medically, hemohidrosis or hematidrosis, sweating of blood, rarely occurs and when it does, it is the result of a person experiencing severe stress or shock.
Per Nymph Kellerman, The medical aspects of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ (16 April 2006), “Flogging by the Romans was so severe the victim often died from the beating. They used a whip… called a flagellum that consisted of small pieces of bone and metal, attached to a number of leather strands. The skin was stripped from the back during a flogging, which exposed a bloody mass of muscle and bone [and at times caused arterial bleeding],” which per William D. Edwards, MD, Wesley J. Gabel, and Floyd E. Hosmer, On the Physical Death of Jesus Christ (JAMA Vol. 255, No. 11, 21 March 1986) resulted in “pain, blood loss (and dehydration that) set the stage for circulatory shock.”
Subsequent to the scourging, Jesus was forced to carry a [75-125] pound crossbar on his shoulders for an estimated 650 yards, enough of a stress to cause a contusion and eventual rupturing of the heart. Afterwards, 7-inch nails were driven into Jesus’ wrists (through the median nerve that resulted in excessive pain running through His arms) and feet (likely through the heel based on the excavated remains of “Yehohanan Ben Hagkol” (John, son of Hagkol) a 24-28 year-old male who had been in excellent health at the time of his crucifixion between AD 50-70 per Ancient Jewish Man’s Remains Give Clues on Crucifixion (Reuters, 7 April 2004), that were discovered at Giv’at ha-Mivtar, just north of Jerusalem in 1968. Then, when the cross was placed into an upright position, per Nymph Kellerman, “it caused massive strain on the wrists, arms, and shoulders resulting in a dislocation of the shoulder and elbow joints. With the arms up and outward, the ribcage held in a fixed position, the victim [found] it extremely difficult to breathe and [consequently could] only take shallow breaths. As time passed, the muscles [underwent] severe cramps and spasmodic contractions, the lungs [began] to collapse in small areas [causing] hypoxia (a condition in which the body as a whole or a region of the body suffers from the effects oxygen-deprivation) and hypercarbia (a condition in which there carbon dioxide content in the blood is dangerously excessive). Respiratory acidosis (excessive acid in bodily fluids) [resulted] in increased strain on the heart that beat faster to compensate. Fluid [accumulated] in the lungs [until] under the strain of hypoxia and acidosis, the heart finally fail[ed]” if the victim had not suffocated first. Per William D. Edwards, MD et al, “survival [of the crucified] generally ranged from three or four hours to three or four days [depending on] the severity of the scourging.”
“…one of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and immediately blood and water came out.” [John 19:34]
The cause of death for Jesus was likely a combination of acute heart failure and hypovolemia, with asphyxia playing a secondary role, based on the outflow of blood and water that ensued when His side was pierced. Per William D. Edwards, MD, “the water probably represented serous pleural (lung cavity) and pericardial (heart-sac) fluid [since] perhaps in the setting of hypovolemia and impending acute heart failure, pleural and pericardial effusions (accumulation of excess fluids) may have developed and added to the volume of apparent water.” Consequently “the weight of historical and medical evidence indicates Jesus was dead before the wound to His side was inflicted. [However] had Jesus not been dead, “the spear thrust between his right ribs, [that] probably perforated not only the right lung but also the pericardium and heart [would have] ensured His death.” Accordingly, [assumptions to the contrary] appear to be at odds with modern medical knowledge.”
Proving the resurrection had occurred or was even scientifically possible has been a constant challenge. However when visual textual evidence (e.g. Jesus was seen by more than 500 people after His death (that, per Jeff Lasko, There is evidence to support Christ’s resurrection (The Pittsburgh Standard, March 2002) led “entire communities of at least ten thousand Jews [to willingly] give up the very sociological and theological traditions that had given them their national identity within weeks of the resurrection) based on 1 Corinthians 15:6, in which mass hallucination was psychologically improbable per William Craig, Contemporary Scholarship and the Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus Christ (14 July 2002) since “no one had anticipated seeing Jesus alive again”) is combined with historical evidence (e.g. Shroud of Turin) and theories and laws of physics, compelling evidence in support of Jesus’ bodily resurrection and ascension exists.
“…the angel answered and said to the women, ‘Do not be afraid, for I know that you seek Jesus who was crucified. He is not here; for He is risen…” [Matthew 28:5-6]
Based on the established date for Jesus’ crucifixion, textual evidence indicates that women (the lowest rung in the social order of the day) discovered Jesus’ tomb was empty (corroborated by Jewish claims His body had been stolen, which his highly unlikely since the disciples at the time were cowering in fear at the loss of their leader since to them “it was over” and would not have been willing to die for a lie created by such a theft (which in all likelihood they did not have the intellectual ability to concoct based on their social, economic, and educational background), the Roman guard would have been executed for permitting such a crime to take place, and most importantly because the linen cloth that had wrapped Jesus remained intact – only deflated; thieves would not have had the time nor ability to replace the 100 pounds of spices that embalmed Jesus’ body nor meticulously wrap the burial cloth back in place with such perfection in absence of a body) on the morning of April 3, AD 33.
When it comes to historical evidence, the Shroud of Turin is perhaps the most important artifact since it is directly linked to the crucifixion (textual scripts indicate it was Jesus’ burial cloth, which was taken to Edessa by Thomas and Thaddeus Jude shortly after the resurrection in AD 33, historical writings confirm its presence in Edessa in AD 544 and transfer to Constantinople in AD 944, a 10th century drawing depicting Abgarus of Edessa and the shroud shows its distinct weave. In addition, textile/material analysis indicates it was compiled of fabric dating back to between 40 BC and AD 73 found only in the Masada fortress tombs (near the Dead Sea) and of high-quality 1st Century Syrian design. Furthermore, forensic analysis of pollen spores tie it directly to a 1st century plant that grew only in certain areas around Jerusalem, while bloodstains of type AB blood (common in the Middle East) confirmed by the presence of serum albumin (a plasma protein), an abundance of bilirubin (a bile pigment produced when the body is under severe trauma as would have been the case with a scourging and crucifixion) and faint writing (in Greek, Latin, and Aramaic) that reads, “(J)esu(s) Nazarene” per Ariel David, Vatican Expert: Turin Shroud Jesus Relic (Discovery News, 22 November 2009) links it directly to the 1st Century and specifically to Jesus) and provides tangible, visible evidence of the resurrection.
With establishment that the Shroud of Turin is directly and physically linked to Jesus, it is plausible to conclude the 3D negative image (consistent with neutrino (weak, invisible particles that can pass through other forms of matter) properties in which it was created within an instant and a short time after Jesus’ death based on the AD 33 transfer date to Edessa) of His crucified body provides tangible evidence of His resurrection. Per Jesus Christ’s Resurrection real, according to some scientists (Word Press, 5 April 2010), based on “modern particle physics,” such a resurrection could conceivably have occurred when Jesus’ body “dematerialized” from underneath the burial shroud in which its physical matter was converted into neutrinos and then “rematerialized” when outside the shroud [likely initiated through interaction with anti-neutrinos that caused] the neutrinos [to revert] back into their previous form of matter. Furthermore, when such a rematerialization took place, it is likely the process emitted an abundance of light (photonic energy), which further corroborated biblical accounts of His “glorified” body.
Creation of the 3D negative image is also consistent with Albert Einstein’s Theory of Relativity (E = mc2) in which “matter and energy are interchangeable under [certain] conditions” such that if Jesus had “enormous levels of energy… the matter of [His] dead body could be transformed into the matter of a living body” per Henry Pang, How the resurrection actually happened (17 May 2010). Accordingly, “if E were applied to [a] dead body… it could result in a living body.” To expand further, spontaneous emission (the process by which an atom or molecule in an excited state (E2) may spontaneously decay into a ground state, with the remaining energy (E1) between the excited and ground states being released as photons) plausibly occurred during the rematerialization process.
For brevity, a few additional physics laws and theories that render Jesus’ resurrection feasible are listed below:
1. The “Omninatural” concept in which per R.C. Metcalf, Colliding with Christ (Xulon Press, 2008), “nature is not limited to what we perceive empirically, but may include existence beyond the boundaries of Minkowski spacetime (one temporal and four spatial dimensions); [it] exists beyond the material universe we inhabit [and is composed of] space, time, matter, and energy.” – consistent with Einstein’s statement, “Nature shows us only the tail of the lion. But I do not doubt that the lion belongs to it even though he cannot at once reveal himself because of his enormous size.”
2. The EPR Paradox/Quantum Entanglement, in which all matter and energy are linked together such that delineations between the quantum (energy) and classical (the visible, physical) worlds as well as time and space are non-existent so that movement of particles between dimensions plausible.
3. The Law of Conservation of Matter that states mass/energy cannot be destroyed or lost.
4. Superstring or String Theory, in which the universe is comprised of subatomic particles that form a one-dimensional vibrating string that can either be closed or open and appear as point particles in a 10-dimensional universe (one temporal and three spatial dimensions we perceive + six compact space dimensions we do not perceive) in which particles in extra dimensions are curled up to a size less than 10 to the negative 33rd power (known as the Planck length).
5. M-Theory, in which the universe consists of 11 dimensions composed of two-dimensional flat planes known as “branes” that lie infinitesimally close to each other, from which energy (such as gravitons, weak particles of gravity first described by Isaac Newton between AD 1665-1667, and possibly neutrinos) may leak from one brane to another, thus travel between dimensions.
6. The Existence of Dark (or invisible) Matter whose gravitational pull originating from an unseen, higher dimension (called a “tesseract”), counterbalances the inward gravitational pull of our universe to prevent it from collapsing corroborated by recent findings based on studies of the Milky Way, Willman 1 and Seague 1 galaxies that revealed “most ordinary matter is hidden as well” per Matter Gone Missing (Discover, June 2010).
With the existence of higher dimensions well established since the mid 1970s, mathematics (e.g. higher dimensional algebra, which per Ronald Brown, Higher Dimensional Group Theory (19 October 2006) is a “contrast between the [one] dimensional viewpoint and the higher dimensional viewpoint”) has also evolved to reflect this reality.
Based on the existence of another dimension (referred to as the 5th dimension), R.C. Metcalf explained the resurrection and ascension relying on analogies from Charles Schultz’s Peanuts comic-strip and Edwin Abbott’s 1888 book, Flatland, and interpretations of Salvador Dali’s 1954 “Crucifixion” painting (that portrayed removal of a dimension, retained a three-dimensional cross and added four cubes to symbolize the presence of a higher dimension, likely because of “an intuitive understanding of the higher dimensional nature of Christ’s resurrection”).
Per R.C. Metcalf, “if ‘Peanuts’ was a ‘Flatland’ (a two-dimensional world) comic and we lifted Linus off the page into our three-dimensional world, it would appear he disappeared to Charlie Brown [and company].” Likewise if a dead Flatlander (who appeared as a dot) was placed into an open tomb (that appeared as a “C”) that was then sealed (making it a closed “O”) the body could not escape unless the Flatlander had been a Spacelander (three-dimensional in form) “with the majority of his body in Spaceland [such that] even if his Flatland body had died, [he] would remain alive… [and] could remove himself from Flatland entirely by moving back into Spaceland from whence he came!”
Keith Ward, a Regius professor of divinity at Oxford University concurs when discussing the resurrection. Per his article, New physics shows resurrection to be possible (The Tablet, 30 November 2006), Ward wrote, “[Jesus’] body always was, like all physical bodies, an appearance to human minds of a deeper unimaginable reality (since based on a ‘multiverse’ concept, matter is an expression of a deeper veiled reality [that in effect explains the ‘Holy Trinity’ – the unity of ‘three persons in one Godhead’ as referred to in Matthew 28:19 – …Make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit”]). It could be instantaneously transformed into another form (a ‘spiritual body,’ Paul calls it) in another space-time.”
“What you sow does not come to life unless it dies… What is sown is perishable, what is raised is imperishable. It is sown a physical body, it is raised a spiritual body.” [1 Corinthians 36,43-44]
Based on the likely existence of an omninatural universe, historical facts, archeological artifacts, and laws of physics, Jesus through historicity and science ties in seamlessly with the textual accounts and Biblical scripture. Jesus’ virgin birth occurred when His particles were inserted (by “The Holy Spirit” per scripture) into our dimension (Mary’s womb, to be precise). Once in Mary’s womb, these particles evolved into human corporeal form. However, despite Jesus’ birth, the majority of His body remained in the 5th dimension (since He is one with the Father, as mentioned later) such that when He was crucified, we only saw a tiny picture – the portion that physically died (and as it died, particles likely collided between the two dimensions resulting in observable natural phenomena such as lightning and thunder, darkness, and an earthquake, to name a few). However, since the majority of Jesus’ body did not die since it remained safely in the 5th dimension that we cannot see or perceive, He was able to step out of the tomb, passing through in the form of neutrinos. In doing so, the visible portion of Jesus’ body left a 3D negative image on the Shroud of Turin.
“Reach your finger here, and look at My hands; and reach your hand here, and put it into My side.” [John 20:27]
Jesus then walked the earth for 40 days with only the crucified, physical part of His body visible. Afterwards, the particles and matter that comprised Jesus’ crucified body crossed into the 5th dimension to rejoin the rest of His body that had not been harmed.
In addition, since M-Theory permits particles to pass between dimensions, it is likely the particles comprising Jesus’ body will again cross over (validating prophecies of His second coming). Furthermore, based on science it appears that the biblical account offered by John when viewed from an omninatural or multiverse perspective was literal in more ways than the disciples could have imagined since prior to Jesus’ crucifixion, resurrection, and ascension that made an eschatological (of or pertaining to the ultimate destiny of humanity) resurrection possible, no one could pass to the 5th dimension:
“Then Jesus said to them, ‘I shall be with you a little while longer, and then I go to Him who sent Me.’ Simon Peter said to Him, ‘Lord, where are You going?’ Jesus answered him, ‘Where I am going you cannot follow Me now, but you shall follow Me afterward.'” [John 7:33, 13:36]
It also may explain the assumption of Mary – in willingly carrying Jesus in her womb, she gained the necessary matter from the 5th dimension to physically draw her body to it. In addition, Jesus’ words, “I am the resurrection and life. He who believes in Me, though he may die, shall live” [John 11:25] and “I am the bread of life… If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. This bread is my flesh… Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day.” [John 6:48,51,54] may be indicative that such belief and partaking in communion (in which physics corroborates the process of transubstantiation – the conversion of bread and wine into the body and blood of Jesus through attraction of particles from His body (that likely constantly replicate in the same way our cells propagate) that cross over into our dimension to coalesce with and transform the bread and wine) is prerequisite to convert us into a Spacelander (known as “born again” in scripture) for entry into the higher dimension (where Jesus resides) per the Flatland analogy.
Based on historical and scientific evidence (in which, per R.C. Metcalf, “the physical events of the resurrection conform to the laws of nature”), Jewish scholar Pinchas Lapid believes, “a bodily resurrection could possibly have [taken place]” since “Jewish tradition includes six accounts of God reawakening the dead (e.g. 1 Kings 17:22, 2 Kings 4:35 and 2 Kings 13:21 in the Old Testament)” per Religion: Resurrection? (Time, 7 May 1979) which is supported by a Dead Sea scroll called, “Gabriel’s Vision” dating from c. 100 BC- AD 1 that describes a Messiah who suffered and died, and an “archangel (Gabriel) order[ing Him] to arise from the dead in three days” per Israeli scholar Ada Yardeni as reported in A New Dead Sea Scroll in Stone? (Biblical Archaeology Review, 8 July 2008).
Finally, when based on the laws of science that dictate “there was always a time when something existed,” scientific fact that the universe has existed for approximately 13.7 billion years indicative of a finite beginning per Ken Than, Every Black Hole Contains Another Universe? (National Geographic, 9 April 2010), R.C. Metcalf concludes it “leaves only one [viable] option, an eternally self-existent, self-sustaining God that exists separately from the material universe,” which substantiates Jesus’ statement “I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End” [Revelation 21:6]. Accordingly, based on M-Theory while utilizing the Flatland analogy, Jesus’ words, “I and My Father are one” [John 10:30] offer a plausible description of the multi-dimensional existence that enabled Him to step out of the tomb and ascend from this dimension forty days later.