Python Control Flow and Functions

Python Control Flow

Chapter 1

As with most imperative languages, there are three main categories of program control flow:

  • loops
  • branches
  • function calls

Generators and list comprehensions are advanced forms of program control flow, but they are not covered here.


Control flow in Python at a glance:

x = -6                              # Branching
if x > 0:                           # If
  print "Positive"
elif x == 0:                        # Else if AKA elseif
  print "Zero"
else:                               # Else
  print "Negative"
list1 = [100, 200, 300]
for i in list1: print i             # A for loop
for i in range(0, 5): print i       # A for loop from 0 to 4
for i in range(5, 0, -1): print i   # A for loop from 5 to 1
for i in range(0, 5, 2): print i    # A for loop from 0 to 4, step 2
list2 = [(1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9)]
for x, xsq in list2: print x, xsq   # A for loop with a two-tuple as its iterator
l1 = [1, 2]; l2 = ['a', 'b']
for i1, i2 in zip(l1, l2): print i1, i2 # A for loop iterating two lists at once.
i = 5
while i > 0:                        # A while loop
  i -= 1
list1 = ["cat", "dog", "mouse"]
i = -1 # -1 if not found
for item in list1:
  i += 1
  if item=="dog":
    break                           # Break; also usable with while loop
print "Index of dog:",i             
for i in range(1,6):
  if i <= 4:
    continue                        # Continue; also usable with while loop
  print "Greater than 4:", i


In Python, there are two kinds of loops, ‘for’ loops and ‘while’ loops.

For loops

A for loop iterates over elements of a sequence (tuple or list). A variable is created to represent the object in the sequence. For example,

x = [100,200,300]
for i in x:
      print i

This will output


The for loop loops over each of the elements of a list or iterator, assigning the current element to the variable name given. In the example above, each of the elements in x is assigned to i.

A built-in function called range exists to make creating sequential lists such as the one above easier. The loop above is equivalent to:

l = range(100, 301,100)
for i in l:
    print i

The next example uses a negative step (the third argument for the built-in range function):

for i in range(5, 0, -1):
    print i

This will output


PPT Rundown of Python Programming CSC Functions and Control Flow - Chapter 1
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CSC 201 200 220 207 204 221 205

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